Attention, Balance and Coordination - The Foundation of all Learning.
Neuro Developmental Delay is the retention of a cluster of primitive reflexes above the age of one as well as the absence or underdevelopment of postural reflexes above the age of three and a half years. When primitive reflexes are still present in a child beyond the age of one and postural reflexes are absent or underdeveloped beyond the age of three and a half, that is an indication of immaturity within the central nervous system. The reflexes are said to be abnormal.
"Abnormal reflexes have also been documented as playing a part in specific learning difficulties and immature behavior." (Fiorentino 1970, Bobath & Bobath 1975, Ayres 1972/3, Bender 1976, Blythe, McGlown 1979, Goddard 1994/96, Wilkinson 1994, Goddard Blythe, 1998 )
Primitive reflexes are automatic movements that are not cortically controlled. They begin in the womb and continue up through 6 months to one year of life. Pediatricians commonly test for these reflexes when assessing a newborn’s neurological health. Postural reflexes are automatic movements that begin after birth and should be in place by the age of three-and-a-half and remain for life. When these reflexes do not inhibit or are not stimulated, as they should in normal development, it can be an indication of problems with the vestibular system and/or immature development of the central nervous system.
Many of the symptom of Neuro Developmental Delay at the brain stem level are also symptoms of some diagnosis such as ADHD, ADD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dyscalculia, Sensory processing disorder, Auditory Processing disorder, etc. Most of the shared symptoms are a result of dysfunction or immaturity in the Central Nervous System.